Bomer was born in Spring, Texas, the son of Sissi and John Bomer, who is a former Dallas Cowboy. He attended Klein High School, located outside of Houston, with fellow actor Lee Pace. They both acted at Houston's Alley Theatre, as well. Bomer graduated from Carnegie Mellon University with a BFA degree. After college, he moved to New York and worked on stage, until he landed a small role on All My Children as Ian Kipling. In 2001, he joined the cast of Guiding Light as Ben Reade. In 2003–2004, he starred as Tru's ill-fated love interest, Luc, on FOX Network's Tru Calling starring Eliza Dushku (Buffy the Vampire Slayer). Bomer was director Brett Ratner's favorite choice to portray Superman/Clark Kent for the project that later became 2006's Superman Returns. Ratner left the project in 2003 and was replaced by director Bryan Singer (X-Men, The Usual Suspects) who cast actor Brandon Routh in the role in October 2004. Matthew has since appeared on Amy Coyne and North Shore, as well as in the movie Flightplan with Jodie Foster. In 2006's Texas Chainsaw Massacre: The Beginning, Matthew plays Eric, a Vietnam vet who is driving across Texas to re-enlist after his brother is drafted. They run afoul of Sheriff Hoyt and are taken captive by the Hewitt family.
Bomer's new show Traveler was picked up as a midseason replacement. It premiered on ABC on at 10 pm. The series was produced by Warner Bros. Television. While Traveler was not picked up for a second season, Bomer played the recurring role of Bryce Larkin on the NBC comedy/spy series Chuck. He is also in talks to play a god in Osiris Release. On , TV Guide reported that Bomer will star in the new USA Network series White Collar, which chronicles the partnership between a con artist (Bomer) and an FBI agent played by Tim DeKay. In April 2009, the USA Network made a series commitment, with the 90-minute pilot to be followed by 13 hour-long episodes.